NYU Bluestone Center Researchers Discover That Skin Color Affects Skin Sensitivity to Heat and Mechanical Stimuli

Image by Petar Chernaev/Royalty-free
Getty Images

Researchers at the Bluestone Center for Clinical Research at the New York University College of Dentistry (NYU Dentistry) have identified a novel molecular mechanism which explains why dark-skinned and light-skinned people respond differently to heat and mechanical stimulation.

in a study published in Scientific Reports online on August 23, 2017, the investigators demonstrate that dopamine, a small molecule produced by skin melanocytes (cells that determine skin color), contributes to differences in the skin’s responsiveness to heat and mechanical stimuli. The study was led by Brian L. Schmidt, DDS, MD, PhD, director of the Bluestone Center and professor of oral and maxillofacial surgery at NYU Dentistry.

Schmidt explained how his group made the discovery. “Dr. Kentaro Ono, a visiting research scientist in my laboratory and the lead author, used publically available data to compare mechanical and heat pain sensitivity in groups of people who differed in their skin color. We sought out additional publically available data; however, this time we looked at pigmented and unpigmented rodents based on fur color. We were encouraged by our findings. We knew we had to continue to work in the laboratory to look for the mechanism that would explain why skin sensitivity would depend on color.”

The group’s meta-analysis in rodents, and comparison of genomic differences between mouse strains, pointed to a gene called Tyr, which controls pigmentation and dopamine synthesis in the skin. They manipulated dopamine levels in the skin and found that dopamine causes increased expression of TRPV1 and decreased expression of Piezo2, two proteins that are responsible for heat and mechanical sensitivity, respectively.

Study coauthor Yi Ye, PhD, associate director of clinical research operations at the Bluestone Center and assistant professor of oral and maxillofacial surgery at NYU Dentistry, said: “Our skin is a sensory organ that gives us information about our environment, such as temperature and pressure. Excessive heat or pressure produces a pain signal that warns us about the dangerous input. Our environmental condition can change our skin’s sensitivity to environmental stimuli under selective pressure.”

She added, “Our study shows that people from different ethnic backgrounds sense temperature and pressure differently. For example, sun exposure in people who live close to the equator leads to melanin build-up, which protects them from UV damage, but also makes skin darker. The same skin cell (melanocytes) that produces melanin releases dopamine, which will increase skin’s sensitivity to heat. This finding potentially means that in order to adapt to extreme weather conditions like those in the equator, this skin cell has developed a protective mechanism that warns people away from excessive sun exposure.”

Schmidt speculates that differential mechanical and heat sensitivity might have implications for the clinical treatment of pain. “We know that individuals report different levels of pain following the same dental procedure or surgery. Similarly, there are differences across groups reporting pain relief once they have taken the same analgesic medication. Potentially, skin pigmentation contributes to these differences and might provide an approach for more targeted and personalized pain treatment.”

The research was funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (R01 DE19796). In addition to Drs. Schmidt, Ono, and Ye, coauthors from NYU include Chi Viet, Dongmin Dang, and John Dolan, as well as Suzuro Hitomi and Takashi Toyono, both from Kyushu Dental University in Fukuoka, Japan.

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Georgia School of Orthodontics Unveils State-of-the-Art Gwinnett Clinic with Grand Opening

ATLANTA, Nov. 21, 2017 /PRNewswire/ — The Georgia School of Orthodontics (GSO) will...

Got a Toothache? There’s a Saint for That

New Online Exhibit in the Dugoni School’s “Virtual Dental Museum” Spotlights...

Oral Health America and the ADA Health Policy Institute Release New Infographic Surrounding Dental Coverage in Medicare 

Oral Health America (OHA) and the ADA Health Policy Institute (HPI)...

AAP and EFP Host World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions

More than 100 periodontal thought leaders convene to establish up-to-date diagnosis...

LANAP and LAPIP Protocols: Laser Gum Disease Protocols

Over 50% of US adults have gum disease.  Offer your patients...

IRIS HD USB 3.0 Intraoral Camera

Experience the Clarity in High Definition The new IRIS HD USB...

A New Adhesive/Primer Ideal for Indirect Restorations

At BISCO, adhesion is our passion. BISCO prides itself on developing...

KDZ Bruxer® Aesthetic

Bring the strength of full-contour zirconia into the facial zone with...